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skl12


5.12 案例学习:用于 SMS 垃圾检测的文本分类

我们首先从dataset目录中加载文本数据,该目录应该位于notebooks目录中,是我们通过从GitHub存储库的顶层运行fetch_data.py脚本创建的。

此外,我们执行一些简单的预处理并将数据数组拆分为两部分:

text:列表的列表,其中每个子列表包含电子邮件的内容 y:我们的 SPAM 与 HAM 标签,以二元形式存储;1 代表垃圾邮件,0 代表非垃圾邮件消息。

import os

with open(os.path.join("datasets", "smsspam", "SMSSpamCollection")) as f:
    lines = [line.strip().split("\t") for line in f.readlines()]

text = [x[1] for x in lines]
y = [int(x[0] == "spam") for x in lines]

text[:10]

y[:10]

print('Number of ham and spam messages:', np.bincount(y))

type(text)

type(y)

接下来,我们将数据集分为两部分,即测试和训练数据集:

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

text_train, text_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(text, y, 
                                                          random_state=42,
                                                          test_size=0.25,
                                                          stratify=y)

现在,我们使用CountVectorizer将文本数据解析为词袋模型。

from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import CountVectorizer

print('CountVectorizer defaults')
CountVectorizer()

vectorizer = CountVectorizer()
vectorizer.fit(text_train)

X_train = vectorizer.transform(text_train)
X_test = vectorizer.transform(text_test)

print(len(vectorizer.vocabulary_))

X_train.shape

print(vectorizer.get_feature_names()[:20])

print(vectorizer.get_feature_names()[2000:2020])

print(X_train.shape)
print(X_test.shape)

为文本特征训练分类器

我们现在可以训练分类器,例如逻辑回归分类器,它是文本分类任务的快速基线:

from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression

clf = LogisticRegression()
clf

clf.fit(X_train, y_train)

我们现在可以在测试集上评估分类器。 让我们首先使用内置得分函数,这是测试集中正确分类的比例:

clf.score(X_test, y_test)

我们还可以计算训练集上的扥分,看看我们做得如何:

clf.score(X_train, y_train)

可视化重要特征

def visualize_coefficients(classifier, feature_names, n_top_features=25):
    # get coefficients with large absolute values 
    coef = classifier.coef_.ravel()
    positive_coefficients = np.argsort(coef)[-n_top_features:]
    negative_coefficients = np.argsort(coef)[:n_top_features]
    interesting_coefficients = np.hstack([negative_coefficients, positive_coefficients])
    # plot them
    plt.figure(figsize=(15, 5))
    colors = ["tab:orange" if c < 0 else "tab:blue" for c in coef[interesting_coefficients]]
    plt.bar(np.arange(2 * n_top_features), coef[interesting_coefficients], color=colors)
    feature_names = np.array(feature_names)
    plt.xticks(np.arange(1, 2 * n_top_features + 1), feature_names[interesting_coefficients], rotation=60, ha="right");

visualize_coefficients(clf, vectorizer.get_feature_names())

vectorizer = CountVectorizer(min_df=2)
vectorizer.fit(text_train)

X_train = vectorizer.transform(text_train)
X_test = vectorizer.transform(text_test)

clf = LogisticRegression()
clf.fit(X_train, y_train)

print(clf.score(X_train, y_train))
print(clf.score(X_test, y_test))

len(vectorizer.get_feature_names())

print(vectorizer.get_feature_names()[:20])

visualize_coefficients(clf, vectorizer.get_feature_names())

练习

使用TfidfVectorizer而不是CountVectorizer。 结果更好吗?系数如何不同? 更改TfidfVectorizerCountVectorizer的参数min_dfngram_range。这如何改变重要特征?

# %load solutions/12A_tfidf.py

# %load solutions/12B_vectorizer_params.py

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